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Fuel Injection for an Older Land Cruiser

Posted in How To on August 12, 2004 Comment (0)
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Fuel Injection for an Older Land Cruiser
129 0012 01z+1985 Toyota fj60+passenger front side view

Land Cruisers have been prowling the earth for more than 40 years, with power provided by carbureted gasoline engines, or, outside the U.S., diesel engines. Until 1993 the F series engines were used in 'Cruisers. These are inline-six engines with a displacement around four liters. The earliest engines were the Fs. The 2F, with an improved oiling system and other upgrades, replaced the F in 1975. Both the F and 2Fs were carbureted. In the late '80s Toyota made a few more changes to the 2F, the most noticeable being a new intake and exhaust manifold and the incorporation of electronic fuel injection. This version was dubbed the 3FE. FJ40s and FJ55s received an F or 2F engine, depending on the model year. FJ60s were only available with the 2F. The 3FE powered the FJ62 and the FJ80 through 1992.

WHY FUEL INJECTION?
The merits of fuel injection, long touted on the pages of this magazine, include constant fuel delivery no matter the angle of the vehicle, easy starting, smooth running even when the engine is cold, no vapor lock, improved gas mileage, and reliability. For the drivers of FJ60 Land Cruisers wanting the benefits of fuel injection and wanting to keep their venerable wagons, swapping in a 3FE from an FJ62 is a viable option. This engine swap was performed on an '85 FJ60, and the donor vehicle was an '88 FJ62. A carbureted 2F was pulled from the 60 and replaced with a 3FE from the 62.

HOW TO DO THE SWAP
Apart from the engine, two of the most critical components of the EFI system are the wiring harness and computer. The wiring system can be most intimidating, but fortunately Toyota logically arranged the wiring harness with plugs that usually will only work in one location. To most effectively do the swap the entire wiring harness from the FJ60 needs to be removed and replaced with one from an FJ62. Extrication of the 60's wiring harness requires the removal of the dash, instrument cluster, and heating and A/C ducts. From this point it's a simple matter of disconnecting the wiring in the engine bay and feeding it into the cab, unplugging the taillight and rear wiper harness, unbolting the fuse block, relay, and control boxes, and unhooking dashboard switches.

FE after it has been installed in the engine bay of an FJ60. The headlight-washer reservoir was lost to accommodate the silencer, near the coolant overflow bottle. Mounting points were present for the large canister-style air cleaner (passenger-side inner fender) and emissions controls (driver-side inner fender). FE after it has been installed in the engine bay of an FJ60. The headlight-washer reservoir was lost to accommodate the silencer, near the coolant overflow bottle. Mounting points were present for the large canister-style air cleaner (passenger-side inner fender) and emissions controls (driver-side inner fender).

Installation of the 62's harness is the reverse of pulling the 60's harness. One difference between the harnesses is that an additional 231/48-inch, or 55mm, hole must be drilled in the firewall on the passenger side. This is to route the EFI subharness into the engine bay. FJ62s have a four-headlight system while 60s have a two-headlight system. If you retain the 60's headlights after swapping in the FJ62 harness, one set of headlight plugs, the set with only two slots, will be unused. The three-slot plugs are used with the high/low beams, but to use these plugs, two of the wires must be swapped. Toyota uses a switchable ground on the headlights. One wire carries the current, while the other two switch between the high and low functions. Simply plugging up the headlights will give a reversed high/low switching. The grounds must be identified and swapped to restore proper headlight operation.

With the installation of the 62's wiring, the choice can be made to install power windows and mirrors. If these features are not to be used, the wiring subharness is easily unplugged from the main harness. After installing the harness the 'Cruiser will have an intermittent function added to the rear wiper. To restore proper A/C operation after the swap, the FJ60's A/C amplifier must be replaced with one for an FJ62, even though the A/C plugs are identical.

Dashboard switches need to be swapped with those from the 62. The instrument clusters will hook up without a problem. FJ60s have a yellow choke light on the dash; FJ62s have a yellow check engine light. The bulb for the check engine light fits nicely in the choke light location, providing a warning light in the event there is a problem with the EFI system. Taillights, horns, and turn signals plug up nicely, as no changes were made between the models.

Engine Bolt-on Location Comparison
2F Engines 3F Engines
Driver-side Upper: Power Steering Pump Air Pump
Driver-side Lower: Air Pump* Alternator
Passenger-side Upper: Alternator Power Steering Pump
Passenger-side Lower A/C Compressor A/C Compressor

FJ60 and FJ62 fuel tanks appear to be identical in outer dimensions, and both are supported by a pair of metal straps, but the tanks differ. Fuel sending units are identical, so a unit from either vehicle will work. Swapping in the 62's tank is the easiest way to obtain a high-pressure fuel feed, since the electric fuel pump is in the tank. Along with the tank, the 62's straps must be used, but be aware that they come in a left and right configuration. Once the tank is in, the two fuel lines-one a high-pressure delivery line and the other a return line-can be routed up to the engine bay.

One other small bit of fabrication to the firewall is needed. The connection between the throttle pedal and carburetor of the 2Fs is by a rod system. Throttle control on the 3FE is cable-actuated, and the cable housing routes through, and bolts to, the firewall near the throttle pedal. To restore a stock-type throttle-cable setup, the appropriate section of firewall was cut from the 62 and patched into the 60's firewall.

In the U.S. all 3FE 'Cruisers are equipped with an automatic transmission, but in other countries the 3F was offered with a manual transmission. Although the crankshafts differ between the 2F and the 3FE, the clutch and bellhousing from the 2F will bolt to the 3FE. The '85 and later FJ60s have a bellhousing cast with a 3F on it, which may indicate that Toyota was making a transition from the 2Fs to the 3Fs. No important communications pass between the auto trans and the fuel-injected engine, so no engine functions are affected by using the manual trans. Once the clutch and bellhousing are attached, the engine can be set in the bay. The 3FE fits in exactly as the 2F did, thus no changes to the motor mounts or drivelines are needed.

One function is lost by using the manual transmission instead of the auto tranny: the neutral safety switch. One plug on the 62 that connects to the transmission has a black/red wire, black/white wire, and red/blue wire. The black/red and black/white wires are for the neutral safety switch. With these wires connected, normal starting functions are reestablished; otherwise no current is carried to the starter when the ignition is turned to the start position. The red/blue wire routes to the backup lights. Wiring from the backup switch on the manual trans must be patched to this wire.

3FE into an FJ40: Will it work?
Since the FJ40s were set up for an F or 2F engine, and a 2F can easily be swapped for an F, the reasonable assumption is that a 3F will also fit. A 3FE in an FJ40 would be an excellent setup, but it would not be as easy as dropping the engine into an FJ60. More fabrication and custom work would be needed. The placement of the air cleaner might be a problem. A new exhaust from the manifold would need to be built. Routing the wiring harness and mating it to the older switches of the 40 would be challenging. New fuel lines and a high-pressure fuel pump would be needed. Placement of the computer would need to be well thought-out to prevent contamination. Once these hurdles were overcome, however, the 'Cruiser would have an engine to take on the most challenging trails.



Once the engine is in the bay, connecting the vacuum lines, plugging wires together, and bolting on the other items is straightforward. The air-cleaner housing is a large canister that resides on the passenger-side inner fender. Welded nuts and holes were in place for the air cleaner, as were stock attachment points for emissions modules and other items.Exhaust systems differ between the two models, but stock exhaust hangers were used for the most part. FJ60s have a single exhaust pipe, catalytic converter, and muffler. The exhaust system routes down the driver-side of the 'Cruiser, inside the framerails, and exits at the tail under the rear bumper. A dual pipe on the FJ62s runs from the exhaust manifold. Two cats are used, one inside the framerails, the other outside. A Y-pipe joins the paired pipes, and the exhaust passes through one muffler with the exit point again under the rear bumper. Although exhaust hangers differ between the 60s and 62s, the models are similar enough so that the 62's exhaust system can be made to fit the mounting points along the 60's frame.

FJ62 radiators have an integral trans cooler which is unnecessary with a manual transmission. The 2F radiator works quite well with the 3FE, but the fan shrouds differ slightly. Swapping in the shroud from the 62 is the best option, but the shroud from the 60 can be made to work by redrilling the mounting holes. The fan on the 3FE is about 111/42 inches higher than the 2F's fan and will rub the shroud if the shroud is not relocated.

RESULTS
The fuel-injected 'Cruiser you see here is running with 3.73 gears and 33-inch tires. Travelling at 60 to 65 mph, gas mileage on the highway is 16 mpg. Carrying a pair of 16-foot Royalex canoes on the roof has not lowered the fuel consumption. Cold stumbling starts are a thing of the past. While the 3FE gives up some low-end torque as compared to the 2F, the 3FE will move this 5,000-pound 'Cruiser from a dead stop on level ground in Second gear (2.29 ratio). On steep, rutted, rocky logging roads the engine has never faltered or lacked for power. In the mud, throttle response has been smooth, seamless, and immediate enough to spin our Swampers. On the highway the 3FE runs strong, and above 3,000 rpm has plenty of power.

Advantages of swapping a 3FE for a 2F include easy starting, a smooth-running engine, perhaps improved mileage, onboard diagnostics if a problem does occur, a stock setup involving few alterations, Toyota dependability, and reliability. Many Land Cruisers with the 2F have been desmogged, and the 3FE swap restores the emissions, but you should check with local codes before completing the swap.

Disadvantages of the swap are that an entire donor vehicle is the best way to obtain the pieces you need to do it, and a vehicle may be hard to find. At the minimum the engine, wiring harness, computer, fuel tank with electric in-tank pump, fuel lines, power steering lines, engine bolt-ons, and exhaust are needed. If necessary, the exhaust could be fabricated.

Comparison of FJ60 and FJ62
Vehicle/Model FJ60 FJ62
Headlights 1 pair, round 2 pair, square
Windows/Mirrors/Antenna Manual Power
Skidplates Transmission/Transfer Case None
Dash Switch Dimensions 25x33 mm 22x38 mm
Engine
Type 2F inline-six 3F inline-six
Displacement (cc) 4,230 3,955
Bore x Stroke (mm) 94x102 94x95
Compression Ratio 7.8:1 8.1:1
Valvetrain 12 valves, pushrod 12 valves, pushrod
Fuel system Carburetor Fuel injection
Fuel Requirement 87 octane 87 octane
EngineOutput
Horsepower 135@3,{{{600}}} rpm 155@4,{{{200}}} rpm
Torque 210 lbs./ft.@1,800 rpm 220 lbs./ft.@2,200 rpm
Drivetrain
Transmission Four speed manual (H42) Four speed automatic (A440F)
Transfer Case Manual Vacuum-operated high/low,manual 2/4WD
Final-drive ratio 3.73:1 4.11:1
129 0012 swap 09 z

Throttle pedals differ between the FJ60 and FJ62. FJ60s connect to the carburetor with a rod linkage, while 62s control throttle position by a cable. Mounting plates were changed between the models. To use the FJ62 throttle pedal in the FJ60 the 60's mounting plate was swapped to the 62's pedal. The 60's pedal is on the left and the 62's on the right. The dual-cable connection on the 62 pedal is for the throttle cable and a dash-operated throttle.

129 0012 swap 10 z

Pictured here the FJ60 power steering lines are on the bottom, FJ62 power steering lines on the top. On 2Fs the power steering pump is located on the driver side of the engine, while 3Fs have the pump on the passenger side. Frame-mounting points are identical, even though the lines route to pumps on opposite sides of the engines. The 62's lines connect to the 60's power steering box perfectly. Removal and installation of the lines requires the removal of the lower valance and loosening of the fenders.

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Sources

Toyota Land Cruiser Association
www.rubithon.com
Land Cruiser FAQ
www.off-road.com/tlc/faq
TLC Performance
Lancaster, OH 43130-7982
TPI
Gallatin, TN 37066
Specter Off-Road, Inc.
Chatsworth, CA 91311

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