Scout Stats: International Harvester 4x4 Spotters Guide
International Harvester (IH) has a long history of building agricultural and trucking equipment. The company was founded in 1902 and has just about as long a history building light trucks. Fast forward to the early ’60s when the company began producing an economical, utilitarian vehicle for the public. It was known as the Scout and was introduced as a ’61 model. This IH lineage would grow in popularity and survive model changes over a 20-year timespan.
The Scout was generally a wagon or SUV body style, but truck models were produced as well. Engine choices would range from four-cylinder to V-8 powerplants, with an occasional diesel thrown in. All this sat on tried and true straight axles supported by traditional leaf springs. Today, many of the half-million Scouts live on, whether still doing rural farm work or following dirt trails taking families on fourwheeling adventures.
Scout 80 (1961 to 1965)The original Scout was the Model 80 which sat on a 100-inch wheelbase. It was brought to market in 1961 in both 4x2 and 4x4 models, with the 4WD versions more popular. IH produced a tick over 100,000 units during the Model 80’s five-year lifespan.
In 1961, International Harvester advertised the new Scout stating, “Quick-change artist. In minutes you can make the Scout whatever kind of vehicle you want. Weather tight cab top, doors and windows are easy to take off, even the windshield folds down. It’s a station wagon, a convertible, a light-duty hauler, a runabout...like having four vehicles for the price of one!” The Scout 80 was offered with several different removable top options and a fold-down windshield.
The short wheelbase SUV sat on a ladder-frame similar to the trucks of the day. The Scout 80 had a payload rating of 800 pounds and utilized a leaf-spring suspension with straight axles, as was common in the day. The front 4WD axle was a closed-knuckle Spicer 27 or 27A. The rear axle could be a Spicer 27 or a Spicer 44 (starting in 1962). Powr-Lok limited-slip units were also optional. Factory standard axle ratio was 4.27:1, but for some years, 3.73:1 and 4.88:1 ratios were added as optional. Manual steering was via a Ross steering box and linkage and drum brakes sat at all four corners.
Only four-cylinder engines were offered in the Scout 80. The 152ci engines were overhead-valve slant-four powerplants derived from the 304 V-8 engine and designated the 4-152 Comanche. The normally aspirated engine had a gross rating of 93 hp, but in late 1964, a turbocharged version became an option and produced about 111 hp.
The three-speed manual transmission was the BorgWarner T-14 in the 4WD Scouts and the iron-case, gear-drive transfer case was a Spicer 18 (2.46:1 low range) with offset rear output. A PTO output at the transfer case was also available during the early years of the Scout.
Scout 800 (1966-1971)For the ’66 model year, IH introduced the Scout 800, though its body design did not change all that much from the previous generation Scout. It was a quieter vehicle and kept the same 100-inch wheelbase as the Scout 80. International added suffix indicators to the Scout 800 as improvements were made. The 800A was assigned to the ’69-’70 models, and 800B was assigned to the ’71 models.
The Scout 800 started out with the 4-152 Comanche (both naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions) that was used in the Scout 80, but a powertrain upgrade was needed. An optional 196ci four-cylinder was quickly offered on the 800A (out-performing the turbocharged 152 which was phased out by 1968), along with a 232ci I-6 option. Then, a 266ci V-8 was introduced in early 1967, followed by a 304ci V-8 a few years later. A body lift was used from the factory to accommodate the larger engines.
The T-14 three-speed manual was standard in the 4WD models with the T-45 (a version of the T-18) close-ratio, four-speed transmission (4.02:1 First gear ratio) optional. When the 800A came along the BorgWarner Model 11 automatic transmission was offered for the V-6 and V-8 models.
A Dana 20 transfer case was used and had a 2.03:1 low-range ratio. It was an improvement over the previous Spicer 18 model with offset rear output and was quieter to boot. It did not offer the PTO ability of the previous transfer case, but the factory soon began to offer electric winch options.
A heavy-duty Dana 44 rear axle was offered starting in 1966 and they were often used with the V-8-optioned Scouts. These versions were a bit wider than the earlier Dana 44 axles. A Powr-Lok (and later a Trac-Lok) limited slip was available in some axles. As time progressed, a Dana 30 front axle was introduced to replace the Dana 27, and it was later widened to match up to the wider rear axle in use. Gearing was again 3.73:1, 4.27:1, or 4.88:1 ratios.
Scout II (1971-1980)IH had been planning for some years to introduce a new Scout model that was originally designated as the X-Scout, and then later changed to 810. Various delays and funding issues pushed the release date out as the Scout 800 was revised to improve the vehicle in the interim. By the time the new Scout came to market it was known as the Scout II.
The base Scout II powerplant in 1971 was the 196ci I-4 engine, but International also offered the 232ci I-6, 304ci V-8, and a 345ci V-8. An AMC 258ci I-6 would replace the original I-6 in late 1971. Electronic ignition was introduced shortly after, and by 1975, all the V-8 engines were electronic. There was a Nissan I-6 diesel option starting in 1976, plus the SD-33T Nissan turbodiesel in 1980.
The T-14 transmission was still the standard three-speed manual with the T-45 four-speed optional. Two three-speed BorgWarner automatics (T-39 and T-49) were offered with the bigger engines, with a Chrysler TorqueFlite auto replacing the T-39 about a year into production. Then, in 1974, IH offered the Warner T-15, a fully synchronized three-speed manual, as standard with all engines. In 1975, the T-19 replaced the T-18 four-speed. Both close and wide ratio versions were supplied, with the wide ratio unit using a 6.32:1 First gear. The Scout II continued to use the Dana 20 transfer case, except in 1980 when it got the Dana 300 transfer case with 2.62:1 low-range gearing.
The early Scout II models came with front drum brakes with disc brakes standard starting in 1974. Power steering became standard on all U.S. Scouts in 1980, which was the final model year of manufacture and a year in which 2WD models were not offered.
We’d be remiss if we didn’t tell you about an excellent resource if you want to dig deeper into Scout history: the International Scout Encyclopedia by Jim Allen and John Glancy. It’s extremely well researched and full of build details. Historical images used here with permission of the Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS).